OAC&J 20 kg: switching hands on the minute, 20 minutes.
I lost count of reps, but the tempo was around 6 - 8/min, so total is somewhere around 150.
It was a good sweatbreaker.
For the workout I used a little program created by Wild Bill from IGX. It is available at http://slil.ru/26173790/235d1aae.48da0708/TIMER.zip It is a stopwatch that beeps at intervals that you set up, so that you don't have to watch the clock al the time. Very helpful, thanks Wild Bill!
There are two things I like about this book. One, most references are to Russian (or rather Soviet) sources. Two, you can find evidence for many, often opposite points of view regarding training principles. Just like you can support your point of view by citing the Bible: you can find whatever you want – or interpret it whichever way you please.
This post is the first of many where I am going to discuss ideas from Supertraining, hence the numerical ending oin the title.
This time I was reading about strength training and endurance and learned couple of interesting things. First, I liked Siff’s paragraph on the Process of Functional Specialization which I will recite below.
According to Siff, if we focus on the process of functional specialization over many years of training, its most general features may be represented in an ascending flowchart.
Structure of special physical preparedness
Ability to display explosive force
Speed, Strength, Endurance
We are endowed with an enormous ability to execute any motor task and perfect this ability. We have flexible mechanisms of coordination, regulation and energy production for motor function, and the ability to produce movements which require the display of speed, strength, or endurance. These mechanisms ensure the success of human activities in daily life and offer extensive possibilities for adaptation – that’s the qualities of Level 1. We start training for sport, and this training stimulates the motor function, which coordinates all muscular activity (Level 2). The motor function specializes chiefly by developing the ability to display explosive force and specific endurance independent of the type of the sport (Level 3). The specific endurance may be predominantly cardiovascular or local muscular in nature. In addition, explosive force relates closely to the motor qualities of starting strength, acceleration-strength and absolute strength. The intensive stage of functional specialization follows which forms the structure of special preparedness (Level 4). The latter displays its own form with respect to interactions of the cardiovascular-respiratory and motor systems, which secure the athlete’s high work capacity.
And now the most important part. Within the confines of such structures, the functional systems interact in cooperative and subordinate relationships. Cooperation implies the relationship that is characterized by the effective interaction of all the systems responsible for producing the working capabilities of the body. Subordinate relationship means that the productivity of one system is enhanced by the functional potentials of the others. The structure of the special physical preparedness is determined by the specific training regime, and does not relate to conditions imposed by other sporting activities. End of paragraph.
For me the most revealing concept is the system interaction. In GS strength, endurance, special endurance, mental toughness, maximum strength and who knows what other qualities are all important for achieving results. Is it reasonable to insist that the only way to train for it is to imitate the competition conditions by doing timed sets? I do not believe so. If it was the case then boxers, for example, would only fight all the time, runners run their distance – no weights – and rugby players would just play their game every day. Unfortunately it is not that simple, and many modes of training directed at the development of different qualities are employed in most sports. Highly specialized training makes sense only at very high level of development.
When arguing about correct ways to train for GS Enemabagg from IGX (I apologize for his posting name and would like to use this opportunity to declare that I do not share his attraction to certain insertable devices!) - well, Enemabagg mentioned that he used to train several years mostly interval style without any sensible progress. Until his coach grabbed him and said "Train GS way, you bitch!". After which the numbers went right up. Jokes aside, I believe that the reason he improved is that by doing intervals he built the base for specialized training and that without it timed sets would not be as efficient. This suggestion is sort of reinforced by another poster, the convert from Hardstyle, who shared his impressions of the first timed set. He managed ten minutes when trying it for the first time, even though his previous training was mostly a la Pavel.
All I am saying is that Girevoy Sport is no different from other cyclical sports in that there is no OTW. Max strength is best developed by heavy lifting with low number of repetitions per set. Endurance – running, timed sets, interval training and assistance exercises for high reps or long time. Speed strength – fast lifting, both heavy and light (or lighter). And so on. Level one represents the most generalized, while at level four you have to display highly specialized physical abilities. Even though “you cannot run before you can crawl” is an annoying cliché, it is still correct. Why GS should be an exception - I have no idea.
60 kg barbell squat: 5/5
I haven't worked snatches for a while now. Despite of this, today was my personal best. I wonder if there is a transfer from jerks. And as I seldom go for long jerk sets either, there should be some transfer from interval-style jerks to GS-style snatches. It would be interesting to hear OTWers' explanations.
2 x 16 kg jerks: 4 sets of 4 minutes, 4 minutes breaks
32, 33, 33 reps. 96 total.
The debates regarding the only correct way continue. AKCers reject everything except long timed sets which seem to be the panacea for GS, fitness and what not. As always, there are couple of real jems in the debate. Below is IGX post by kev:
hi,your right in your approach. you need to find your level and and if working 10 one minute sets is how you begin thats fine. as time wears on you will know when to increase the duration. sets of all durations-shorter and longer than 10 have their place. main point is to have the ball in your hand and not on the floor. the central nervous system builds slowly and working on the nerve often fucks you up. it will mentally keep you from progressing. a mental/emotional raodblock so to speak.when i start anyone i let them put the ball down when they want to and pick it up when they want to. they are the ones lifting it. once we get past that intensity can be introduced but when they are ready. making it simple and effective is the key-you are finding what is simple and effective for you.kev
Another post, from Tom o'Bedlam:
this statement that sets are not sports training makes no sense to me. why is doing work intervals for time "sports" training, but doing work intervals for reps not sports training?
i would think that in training for a 10 min strength-endurance competition, an athlete would want to work a range of energy systems doing a mix of times and lifting paces. you'd do some training at a lower rate and longer duration than the competition and some training in intervals, be they time or reps. i would assume some interval training would be short and intense (says 1-2 mins at comp pace plus).
i don't understand why such variety isn't part of commieball training. that's the way athletes train for other "endurance" sports. what's so different about kgbballs?
I just cannot add anything. I wish more professional coaches were thinking like these guys.
If you are wondering about the same, have a look at this post. Its core is the article with the title Training Methods in Girevoy Sport written by Gomonov VN, PhD, Makhotkin BV, MS of the USSR, Gamzov SA. Moscow University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Branch of Bryansk City. If the mention of the military or law enforcement adds credibility for you – here it is: Ministry of Internal Affairs is the Police. As many other articles on my blog, it is taken from http://www.fgsrostov.aaanet.ru/
This article discusses methods widely used in the Russian school of GS, that
encompasses strength, endurance, flexibility and coordination.
The process of the development of girevik must be maximally connected with the development of movement skill. We see the solution of this problem by making the development of physical qualities of girevik as close as possible to the real sports activity, to maximize the interaction of “girevik-giri” with the platform.
Several parameters are used in order to quantify the load in GS: volume, intensity, quantity and the order of exercises, type of muscular activity, rest interval between sets. The amount of weight lifted during training is the volume and the speed of performance and the number of movements as the percentage of maximal reflects intensity. It is common to use the heart rate as the measure of intensity. In highly qualified athletes the pulse cost of one repetition is considerably lower than that among beginners, while maximal HR often reaches 200 per minute.
Training methods in GS are divided into two groups: uninterrupted – continuous and intermittent; and interrupted – interval, repetitive, control and competition methods.
The main characteristic of uninterrupted continuous method is that girevik performs an exercise for prolonged period of time – not less than 30 minutes. At the same time he/she strives to preserve constant rhythm and tempo, the magnitude of the effort and the amplitude of the movement. This method leads to improvement of the economy of movement and predominant development of aerobic - and partially anaerobic - abilities of the body.
The analysis of diaries of outstanding gireviks indicates that all of them, in order to improve aerobic capacity, include in their training process running of moderate intensity, swimming and skiing. For instance, Honorary MS Sergey Mishin runs 6 km 3 -4 times during the weekly cycle at the speed of 4-4.5 min/km, at bodyweight of 105-110 kg.
Physiologically the basis of the uninterrupted method lies in the fact that many functional parameters (pulmonary ventilation, oxygen consumption, heart rate) are in a stable state for prolonged period of time. Optimal range of intensity is at the level of heart rates of 140-150 per minute.
The advantages of the method are the ability to perform significant training volume, the fact that it facilitates stabilization of the technique and improves the combined function of the main systems of the girevik and leads to sustained functional changes in the body.
Performing lifts using this method, however, is only possible for gireviks of high qualification. Less advanced athletes have to use lighter bells or engage in exercises from other cyclical sports (running etc.) This, in turn, decreases the effect of specialized training.
Uninterrupted intermittent method (variation of uninterrupted) implies performing continuous lifts while changing the tempo, rhythm and the weight of the bells. Its tasks are: improving the technique, coordination, efficiency of movement, development of speed, special strength and endurance, tactical (I SWEAR, IT WAS IN THE ARTICLE!!! smet) preparation of gireviks. When training this way the loading parameters are gradually changing, and it facilitates the adaptation of the athlete to various conditions of performance, including those close to competitive. The intensity here lies in the 140 – 180 range and determines the goal of the training session: general physical development, improvement of the technique of the jerk, tactical preparation (oops, again!) According to the analysis, most athletes vary the components of the training load according to the subjective feelings, as the session unfolds.
Interval training implies strict dosing of the duration of the set – not more than 2 minutes; strict planning of the rest between sets – 30-120 seconds and 4-5 minutes between the series of sets. Heart rate gauges the intensity, and the number of repetitions must be sufficient so that HR at the end of the set is 170-180 per minute. If it does not return to acceptable levels it means that the load is too high and must be corrected, by either decreasing the number of reps or the tempo of the set. Interval training allows developing special and speeding endurance (aerobic and anaerobic capacity).
The most acceptable combinations of work-rest in our research have been the following:
30 seconds work, 30 seconds rest
60 seconds work, 60 seconds rest
60 seconds work, 30 seconds rest.
The advantage of the interval training is, first of all, the ability to precisely dose the training load. This method allows high density of training (literal translation – smet), gaining the training form quickly. However, because of the fast growth of the performance adaptation also occurs fast. Also, the effect achieved by this way of training is lost relatively faster than that achieved with other methods.
Repetitive method also implies separation of sets by periods of rest. However here gireviks perform the set until fatigue, and the rest interval is long enough for the complete restoration of strength. This method allows solving various tasks: improve speed (jerk sets with low number of reps), development of special endurance and the adaptation of tissues to low oxygen levels in the blood (jerk for maximum reps), tactical preparation - reinforcing stable rate of lifting, improving mental stability (that’s what it is! - smet)
During this method the systems of the body undergo significant – and sometimes maximal – strain. For example, performing sets in maximal tempo leads to the oxygen debt, and the heart rate may go to 200 per minute and higher. Repetitive method increases energy resources in the muscles and facilitates more economic expenditure of the energy substrates. Main difference between this method and others is that it predominantly affects metabolism in the muscles, whereas other methods affect cardiovascular and respiratory systems to larger degree. Because of the repetitive method, on one hand, the muscles get stronger and, on the other, the ability of the muscles to perform in conditions of low oxygen levels, which considerably improves anaerobic and aerobic capacity of gireviks. Training of gireviks without repetitive method will never be complete.
Control training is used for checking the efficiency of training. The meaning of this method is to perform competition lift for certain duration. The idea is to make the conditions close to competitive.
Competition method is variation of control and has elements of competition in it. Both of these methods demand to be organically included into the training process, and control lifts must reflect the goals of the process and the level of the athletes.
The knowledge of the main training methods will allow the coach to better design their combination applicable to the existing conditions. General rules of building the training process remain obligatory for everyone. However, every athlete must have his own “handwriting” of training, according to his morpho-functional qualities.
The end. Make your own conclusions.
*Методы тренировки в гиревом спорте. Кандидат педагогических наук Гомонов Владимир Николаевич. Мастер спорта СССР Б.В. Махоткин. С.А. Гамзов. Брянский филиал Московского Университета МВД России
Average tempo 7-8 reps/min.
I may be wrong, but I disagree with those who say that sets of 10 don't have value. This session I did 110 reps, my best workout total so far (I know, I know, but shut up!) From the fourth set I really had to start thinking about pacing, paying attention to the rack and overhead positions, lowering the bells, breathing and other aspects of the technique. If I went for just one 5 minute set I could probably squeeze 50, maybe 55 reps, last ones being rather agonising semi-presses. However, by doing shorter sets with short breaks I managed to do more volume while paying attention to the form. They say short sets don't work your rack - I say nonsense, if you do enough of them they work your rack just fine. Even better, as you spend more time in that position.
Kill me, but for me as the beginner in this sport the most important task is building up volume and learning the technique. Pushing to the high intensity levels - and that is what long sets do - can get on the way of that. My opinion, of course, but so far I am a pupil happy with his results.
Someone asked a question on IGS about breathing during jerks, and I remembered seeing an article on Rostov Site http://www.fgsrostov.aaanet.ru/Tihonov_Mishin.doc *, written by reputable authorities: one is S Mishin, the coach of the National Russian teams at the moment of writing, another, V Tikhonov, PhD, was already featured on this blog. Below is its short translated version.
We observed that many gireviks even at the level of MS strain in overhead fixation phase. This strain complicated the technique and delays the development of physical qualities of gireviks. Our observations show that after such strain the athlete needs 6 – 8 breathing cycles in rack position order to be ready for the next repetition.
Incorrect breathing rhythm leads to excessive movements of arms, legs and trunk and consequently the loss of the economy of movement and inferior results. Straining also leads to the dysfunction of the cardiovascular system as it causes congestion in the inferior vena cava and reduction of the pulling forces created by the negative pressure in the chest cavity. The goal of the current work was to determine the optimal proportion of types of breathing – thoracic or diaphragmatic – that can lead to elimination of straining. It was especially interesting to observe the coordination of breathing with specific movements of the jerk.
From 2005 the authors videotaped and observed the athletes of various levels and ages. They also questioned the coaches, athletes and competition judges in regards to breathing techniques.
Most gireviks use thoracic (chest) breathing during jerk. Diaphragmatic breathing in rack position was observed in 24 – 34% of athletes (more often in youngsters). During fixation it was observed in 8 – 15% of athletes. The rate of breathing is the function of rate of lifting. In gireviks ranked level one and KMS we observed 6–8 breathing cycles while in rack between reps, already after 3 minutes of competition. Athletes of high qualification do 1–3 breathing cycles. During the actual jerk the number of breaths varies between 1.5 (inhale-exhale-inhale) to 3.5 (4 expirations and 3 inspirations), depending on the variant of breathing.
There are many variants of breathing, but they can generally be divided into four main groups.
First dip – exhalation
Movement to fixation – inhalation
Fixation – breath holding (strain)
Descent and amortization – sharp exhalation
Total - 1.5 breathing cycles.
First dip – exhalation
Movement to fixation – inhalation
Fixation – exhalation
Descent – inhalation
Amortization – exhalation
Total – 2.5 cycles
First dip – exhalation
Pushing the bells up – inhalation
Second dip – exhalation
Getting up after the second dip – inhalation
Fixation – exhalation
Descent – inhalation
Amortization – exhalation
Total – 3.5 cycles
First dip – exhalation
Pushing the bells up – inhalation
Movement to fixation - exhalation
Fixation – inhalation - exhalation
Descent – inhalation
Amortization – exhalation
Total – 3.5 cycles
The first variant of breathing is observed in athletes of low qualifications. Second one – in highly qualified athletes. Third variant is common in athletes in whom the duration of the second dip and getting up after the second dip is longer than in others (0.56 to 0.64 seconds). The fourth version is common for athletes with the longest fixation phase (0.6 to 1.5 seconds); in other words, in those who rest overhead.
In the literature breathing techniques are described in detail. However, there are no recommendations regarding diaphragmatic or thoracic types. Or, the literature answers the question “when to breathe” but not “what to breathe with” or “how” (deeply, superficially, fast or slow).
In rack position, if the elbows rest on the abdominal muscles and bells are resting on the chest, the breathing will be difficult. In beginners it is common to observe the bells moving up and down with respiration. This, of course, reduces the economy of movement and fatigues breathing muscles of the chest. However, if the elbows are resting on the iliac crests (or the belt), respiration becomes easier, and it is possible to use either diaphragmatic or thoracic breathing. During the first dip the abdominal and thoracic cavities are compressed and girevik naturally exhales. While pushing the bells up the compression is released and the athlete inhales.
According to the rules, fixation is visible stopping of the bells in fully extended arms. For athletes of low qualifications it is difficult to fulfill this requirement. As they lack skill, they hold their breath from fixation to the moment of lowering the bells to the chest. During breath holding on inhalation during fixation overhead the bells do not stop moving horizontally. During fixation overhead the position of the arms and scapulas, and the degree of strain of the muscles required for this fixation causes difficulty and even inability to use diaphragmatic breathing. However, the diaphragmatic breathing is not limited; rather the problem lies in the coordination of breathing and relaxation of the abdominal muscles not participating in overhead fixation.
The authors suggest that using diaphragmatic breathing reflects more rational and economic technique of the jerk. They make an example of D Benidze, who was the winner in 2007 Russia Cup with 80 jerks. Analyzing the video you could see that during rack and overhead fixation he was doing two inhalations-exhalations using diaphragmatic breathing. Comparing this with the video of him done in 2005 you can see that he was using the first, most inefficient variant of breathing described above. His result then was 13 jerks. The advantages of diaphragmatic breathing are obvious from the fact that leading gireviks of Russia were using this type of breathing long before the new rules of 2005 (which emphasize stricter overhead fixation).
The conclusions of the article:
Diaphragmatic breathing in rack and overhead fixation is more common in athletes of high qualification.
First variant of breathing described above is typical for athletes of lower qualifications; second variant is typical for masters of sports; variants three and four are used by masters of high level. There are no special exercises and methods used for teaching various ways of breathing in GS.
There is some data that diaphragmatic breathing is superior in girevoy sport (compared to thoracic) and improves aerobic component during competition lifts.
End of article. Wow. It is amazing how many details come up when someone studies something in detail. For me it is difficult to make definite conclusions from this work. Are masters better because they use specific way of breathing? Or are they breathing this way because they are strong and have great endurance? At the very least the breathing pattern reflects the level of skill in GS. It also makes sense to concentrate on the abdominal (diaphragmatic) breathing during jerks as it just makes sense from what these guys are saying. It also makes sense to take and extra breath in fixation phase as this will emphasize and may improve it. All this comes back to the correct technique.
*ОСОБЕННОСТИ ДЫХАНИЯ В УПРАЖНЕНИИ ГИРЕВОГО СПОРТА ТОЛЧОК ДВУХ ГИРЬ ОТ ГРУДИ. С.Н. Мишин, Заслуженный мастер спорта России, Главный тренер сборных команд России, г. Калуга. В.Ф. Тихонов, к.п.н., доцент кафедры физического воспитания и спорта Чувашского госуниверситета им. И.Н. Ульянова, г. Чебоксары
According to the authors of the article, most GS authorities agree that multiple repetitions in girevoy sport are realized by developing strength endurance. As far as strength is concerned, researches involved in GS are unanimous in their opinion that developing strength is necessary up to certain “sufficient” level. Voropaev in his studies came to the conclusion that strength level of elite gireviks is similar to that of 2nd rank weightlifters. In Voropaev’s opinion, this is that “sufficient” level. However, there are different weight categories, and the difference in strength between lightweight and heavyweight athletes is significant. In other words, according to this opinion, in order to lift 32 kg bells, athletes below 60 kg and those above 90 kg have to develop strength that is quite different for their bodyweight!
There is a table in the book by Vorotyncev which reflects approximate strength requirements for gireviks. One of the authors of the article, Lopatin, compared his own strength with the number in the table. His bodyweight is in the 60 – 65 kg category.
Required – 80 kg
Lopatin – 65 kg
Required – 110 kg
Lopatin – 90 kg
Required – 110 kg
Lopatin – 80 kg
Pressing 32 kg bell
Required – 1-2 times
Lopatin – 0 times
Required – Junior ranking
Lopatin – Adult ranking
For the record, Lopatin is the Russian record holder in biathlon – 166 points – and long cycle – 61 reps (http://www.girevoirybinsk.narod.ru/records.html) . Record holder could not pass the test from the text book!
The authors insist that there is no research regarding strength component of girevoy sport. They also say that barbell squats do not reflect the model of jerk in GS and therefore cannot be used as a test. That’s why it is not surprising that light athletes who are capable to get the KMS numbers for the category below 80 kg cannot squat 110 kg. The mechanism of effort in GS is explosive, acceleration of the kettlebells in order to get them to certain height. At the same time the amplitude of the second dip is much less than in weightlifting, and the duration of the cycle much shorter. As the rule, strong and easily fatigued muscle fibers are not included in the lifts, and instead the work is performed by slow and fast fibers with good endurance. It is clear, therefore, that in GS the most important factor is the strength of endurance fibers, and tests should be conducted accordingly.
Lifts in GS are achieved by synchronization of endurance fibers, and this is determined not by the strength of the nerve impulse, but by its frequency. That is why hypertrophy is much less pronounced in gireviks compared to weightlifters. Moreover, because of the duration of the competition in GS oxidative processes dominate over glycolytic.
According to many researches, strength used in GS is below 70% of maximal, and strength component in GS is not decisive. Strength endurance, of course, is one of the most important qualities for gireviks. However, some clarification is needed.
Strength endurance in its pure sense means performing movements without breaks, and according to some authors, not more than for 40 repetitions. In GS pauses between reps can reach 10-20 seconds, and number of reps is often above one hundred. In these conditions processes of recovery become important. The higher the rate of restorative processes, the higher the rate of lifting. I.e. the rate that allows using all 10 minutes of competition set. Athletes who have strength-speed qualities (strength endurance) developed show good results in max rep sets for 30-60 seconds. In this case the work is performed during uninterrupted muscular contraction, and the tempo is 30-40 reps per minute. Main source of energy during such work is the reserve of glycogen in muscles. However in 5 minute tests these athletes are inferior to those with well developed endurance, and definitely inferior in 10 minute sets. Therefore strength endurance is not the decisive factor in GS as it only allows performing sets at high tempo for 1-3 minutes. That is why it is rather necessary to focus on special endurance, or endurance to work with pauses between repetitions sufficient for restoration for the next repetition. These pauses determine the tempo of the lifts, and it is exceeding this optimal tempo that is the cause of fatigue and premature termination of the set, and not insufficient strength endurance, willpower or motivation.
It is clear from the above that competition tempo is strictly individual and depends on the weight category of the athlete, his qualification and the stage of training micro- and macrocycle. In any case, the tempo must ensure work for 10 minutes of competition set. According to the opinion of Zatsiorsky stable rate of performance is important for achieving results in cyclical sports.
Fast tempo leads to premature fatigue thus involving ineffective white fibers in lifts, and large part of the energy is produced by glycolytic pathways (wasteful) that produces oxygen debt. That’s why the work stops and no willpower can resist fatigue. Attempts to determine optimal tempo without taking into account the strain put on the functional systems of the body are erroneous.
The authors of the article state that they agree with the advocates of carefully using interval training methods. The most effective way of training slow fibers is stable or oxidative method of training. This regime is achieved when working at the level of 80-90% of VO2 Max, or heart rate around 170-180 rep minute. During competition, however the heart rate may reach 190/min, therefore it is necessary to include work of such intensity in the training program.
In summary, general tendency in the development of GS today is in preference to general endurance and, based on it, special endurance; and not the development of strength and strength endurance, as claimed in some textbooks on GS. The evidence for it is the fact that skiers, long distance runners, rowers show higher results in girevoy sport at the institution where the authors of the article teach.
The end of the article. I am not sure what to make of it. It always seemed to me that developing maximal strength would help boosting the numbers up. After all, 10RM is related to 1RM, and logically you those who can jerk 200 kg would make more reps with a pair of 24s than those whose max is 100kg. According to the gentlemen from the Russian Far East it is not so. They insist that endurance is the primary determinant of success in GS. I am blown away by the fact that former endurance athletes achieve the most in this sport as opposed to weightlifters and other primarily strength oriented sportsmen. In any case, this is the point of view opposite to the conventional, and if it is correct then many gireviks – especially amateurs like me - might be training in not the most efficient way.
*Развитие силы и силовой выносливости в гиревом спорте. Преподаватели кафедры физической подготовки и спорта Дальневосточного военного института. Лопатин Е.В., мастер спорта России международного класса по гиревому спорту, Руднев С.Л., мастер спорта России международного класса по гиревому спорту.
2 x 16: 3 min/27 reps, 3 min rest
3 min/25 reps, 3 min rest
3 min/24 reps, 3 min rest
3 min/ 22 reps.
98 reps total, alsmost at my goal of 100. The first set isn't included because I took 10 minutes rest after it.
My heart rate at the end of the last set was 184. That's above my calculated age-based max HR! God only knows why I am doing this to myself...